Factors influencing treatment outcomes of tuberculosis patients attending health facilities in Galkayo Puntland, Somalia

Authors: Said Abasse Kassim, Andre Cote, Said Mohamed Kassim, Muhammad Abbas, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf Baig, Abdiweli Mohamed Ahmed, Mahamoud M. Hussein, Xiaobo Li, Rui Chen

Journal of Public Health, 2021


This study evaluated the underlying factors associated with poor tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes among patients attending health care facilities in Galkayo, Puntland, Somalia.


An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted between 2016 and 2017 in three selected TB clinics. Data were collected from 400 TB patients, through medical record review and structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.


Of the 400 TB respondents, 57.3% were new cases, 12.3% had smear-negative TB and 12.5% had extrapulmonary TB. The median age was (35.66 ± 13.16) with majority being male (65.5%). Overall, 85% of patients were successfully treated, 9.7% failed and 5.3% defaulted. Multivariate analysis revealed that patient’s body weight (odds ratio [OR]: 1.078); diabetes (OR: 8.022); family size (OR: 3.851); patients’ delay in diagnosis (OR: 11.946); frequency of receiving anti-TB medication (OR: 9.068); smoker (OR: 5.723); category of patients (retreatment versus new, OR: 5.504; retreatment versus transfer in, OR: 4.957); health facilities (OR: 6.716) and treatment duration (OR: 132.091) were independent factors associated with poor TB outcomes.


Our findings highlight the need to improve TB services for vulnerable groups. They also emphasize the need for health system strengthening, public awareness and risk of treatment interruption. This may reduce both patients’ delay in seeking care and TB treatment failure in Galkayo district.

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