Occurrence and Human-Health Impacts of Mycotoxins in Somalia

Authors: Ewa Wielogorska, Mark Mooney, Mari Eskola, Chibundu N. Ezekiel, Milena Stranska, Rudolf Krska and Chris Elliott

Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemestry, 2019

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by various molds that contaminate many staple foods and cause a broad range of detrimental health effects in animals and humans through chronic exposure or acute toxicity. As such, the worldwide contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a significant problem, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, mycotoxin occurrence in staple foods consumed in Somalia was determined. A total of 140 samples (42 maize, 40 sorghum, and 58 wheat) were collected from a number of markets in Mogadishu, Somalia, and analyzed by a UPLC-MS/MS multimycotoxin method that could detect 77 toxins. All of the maize samples tested contained eight or more mycotoxins, with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) levels reaching up to 908 and 17 322 μg/kg, respectively, greatly exceeding the European Union limits and guidance values. The average probable daily intake of fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) was 16.70 μg per kilogram of body weight (kg bw) per day, representing 835% of the recommended provisional maximum tolerable daily intake value of 2 μg/(kg bw)/day. A risk characterization revealed a mean national margin of exposure of 0.62 for AFB1 with an associated risk of developing primary liver cancer estimated at 75 cancers per year per 100 000 people for white-maize consumption alone. The results clearly indicate that aflatoxin and fumonisin exposure is a major public-health concern and that risk-management actions require prioritization in Somalia.

Connect with us

AMEB Mother and child care Italia



Privacy & Cookie Policy


The platform Somali Medical Archives has been developed as a tool to promote cooperation between Somali health professional in their mother country and abroad, engaging the diaspora for the improvement of Somali Health Services.

SOMAR Somali Medical Archives is an idea by Edna Moallin Abdirahman

Cookies user preferences
We use cookies to ensure you to get the best experience on our website. If you decline the use of cookies, this website may not function as expected.
Accept all
Decline all
Read more
User state
Joomla user state
Set of techniques which have for object the commercial strategy and in particular the market study.